FIFA MA Elite Referees Course

FIFA MA Elite Referees Course

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Management: Going into Extra Time or Penalty Shoot-out

Carrying out a task is not merely carrying it out but to have it performed with quality. What is quality performance in the management of situation prior to the extra time period or penalty shoot-out? Quality is having done as professional as possible, as efficient as possible. Efficient = lowest time + least effort.
The moment the referee makes the final whistle and if extra time period or the penalty shoot-out need to be carried out, the match officials have to make sure that this is being managed with professional attitude and efficient management. AR1 will ensure that no players leaves the field of play and no substitutes enter on the right side of the field, while the Fourth Official will attend to the team on the left side while waiting for the AR2 to come after having a drink or rest. When the AR2 takes over from the Standby, he then goes to the AR1 to take over his task to enable him a rest or a drink. Team officials (not substitutes) are allowed to enter to give drinks or discuss with the captain during this short break. The length of this period is subjected to the referee's discretion.
Meantime, as soon as possible after the referee take a rest or drink, he will get both the captains for the toss. Briefing to the assistant referees should have been done in the dressing room prior to the match or during the interval. The referee will then have the restart of the extra time period or the penalty shoot-out taken as soon as possible.
Having a task done as required is effective management but having it done with the least time, effort and professionally is efficiency in management.

Right Qualities to be Recognised

To be a FIFA match official is not about being able to pass the physical fitness test. Neither is it about having the capability to handle difficult situation or making critical decisions well. There are more to that. Having the right personality does not mean the meeting of the desired physical, pleasant in your approach or appearance or being like by people. So what is it?
There are the "X-factors" or the finer points that make one different from others or that give you the better edge over others. An excellent FIFA referees should be THOROUGH - very good understanding and interpretation on the knowledge of the Laws of the game, thorough with the procedures and guidelines for referees and assistant referees, thorough (knows everything) about the competition rules and regulation; METICULOUS - knows all the details that need to be attended to like: one official only for tactical instruction, players warming out, officials not in a responsible manner, warming up procedures, going into extra time or the penalty shoot-out and so on; ASSERTIVE - have a strong personality to push your power or weight to the players, make strong critical decisions or take strong action and still being accepted by players or team officials, showing the right sanctions (verbal, yellow or red card) at the right moment and right place; ATTENTIVE - always in the state of awareness of what is happening on and off the field all the time.
Are you ready or do you have what others do not? Then the EMPTY SPOT is for you!

Thursday, June 2, 2011

STRETCHING - Dos and Don'ts

Sure, you may walk or run regularly, hit the gym every other day or attend the occasional fitness class, but is your fitness program truly complete? Not without stretching it isn't! Stretching is a necessary component to any wellness routine regardless of your activity level. Without a good stretch before and after your workout you run the risk of serious injury.

Non-stretchers may also find themselves bulking up instead of trimming down and, as a result, losing valuable range of motion benefits. Lack of flexibility can affect your posture, causing tight hamstrings or hip flexors that will pull your pelvis out of its natural alignment. This can lead to long-term lower back strain and spine issues.

The good news is that stretching is easy and it can be a great way to relax. There are limitless ways to stretch: standing up, lying down and with or without the assistance of a wall, ball or exercise band. As with any exercise, there are also many ways to hurt yourself if you're not careful! Be sure to practice "safe stretch" and use some of these helpful tips to guide you on your way to becoming more flexible as you enhance your workout along the way.

DO: Be sure to stretch 8-10 minutes before AND after your workout, no matter what you're doing.

DON'T: Skimp on stretch time. You should hold each stretch for 15-20 seconds, starting with small range of motion and deepen it as you go. Quick stretches simply aren't worth your valuable workout time.

DO: Take it easy before your workout. You'll find that your muscles will naturally loosen with activity and you will have better flexibility after you've been moving for a while.

DON'T: Stretch past the point of discomfort. Flexibility does not happen overnight. Stretching should not be entirely comfortable, but it should not be painful either. The last thing you want to do is pull a muscle!

DO: Breathe during your stretches. Your muscles will slightly relax as you oxygenate them. Take a deep breath in through your nose and exhale through your mouth as you slowly deepen the stretch with focus and control.

DON'T: Bounce into your stretches. Find your position and hold, then take it further with slow, even breaths.

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

Amendments 2011/2012 - Interpretation Summary

Amendments to the FIFA Laws of the Game will be effective as of 1 July 2011.
Law 1. Field of Play
a. Only lines indicated in Law 1 are to be marked on the field of play.
On artificial surfaces, other lines are permitted provided that they are of different and clearly distinguishable color. Some artificial surfaces field are used for other games beside football.
b. The shape of the goals must be square, rectangular, round or elliptical but the distance in between the goal posts must be 7.32 meter.
Law 2. The ball
Replacement of defective ball - If the ball burst or becomes defective during a penalty kick or during kicks from the penalty mark as it moves forward and before it touches any player or the crossbar or goalposts, the kick is retaken.
If the ball bursts or becomes defective during the course of a match, the match is stopped and is restarted with a dropped ball.
Law 3 - The Number of players - only structural changes in the text.
Guidelines to referees - Extra person on the field of the play.
Team Officials
The coach and other official indicated on the team list are deemed to be team officials.
Law 4 - The Players' Equipment
Basic equipment
shorts - if undershorts or tights are worn, they must be of the same main color as the shorts.
The current Law permits tights or different color to the shorts to be worn. This result to confusion. This change requires the tights, if worn to be of the same main color as the shorts.
Law 5 - The Referee
Structural changes to the text on The Referee - Powers and Duties
If an extra ball entering the field of play ......
Law 8 - Start and Restart of Play
Structural amendment to the text.
Definition of dropped ball
A dropped ball is a method of restarting play when, while the ball is still in play, the referee is required to stop play temporarily for any reason not mentioned elsewhere in the Laws of the Game.
Other decisions of IFAB
1. Additional Assistant Referees (AARs) - experiment to continue. Use of AAR at UEFA EURO 2012.
2. Goal-line Technology (GLT) - this project to continue.
3. Law 4 -Players' Equipment
a. Usage of radio communication to be referred to FIFA Task Force Football (FTFF) 2014 for consideration.
b. Wearing of "snoods" (knitted head gear or scarf) and other similar clothing is not permitted.
4. Law 12 - Fouls and Misconduct
Sending-Off offenses - will be referred to FTFF.
5. Vanishing Spray - approved the use of the vanishing spray by CONMEBOL on a trial basis.

Monday, May 2, 2011

Gaining the Respect of the Players

To know you is to love you. Mutual respect will come when two people learn to understand each other role, character and emotion better. Knowing a person better will result in the feeling of liking him better. If we keep judging a person, there will not be any place in our heart to love him.
Man as a creature has many weaknesses but has many strengths too. We are always skeptical towards others and do not give our total trust to them. At times, we trust everyone or anyone until we get the medicine of them being mistrusted. Thus, the bitter medicine is hard to swallow and we end up not trusting others.
Refereeing is a thankless job. Not many want or even think of becoming a football referee. When a team wins they do not thank you for a job well done. No! Not even the press nor other media. But, when they lose the referee will the scapegoat for them to blame rather to blame themselves, their players, their tactics or strategies. When you made a big mistake it will definitely be highlighted. That is the media who lack the credibility and creativity to market their product better.
A Referee, as a normal human will always try their best to give their best performance as the ego in a person drives them to do so. Referees at the top level will definite take adequate measure to prepare themselves to prepare for a match so that they can come out from the field as winners too. To err is human. Thus, referees also have the tendency of making mistake. This may be due to tiredness, lose concentration of lack of concentration, fatigue, complacency or careless. This is the same as in the players, losing concentration and missing a goal or conceding a goal. Mistakes made normally can be absorbed or accepted by players or team officials but mistake made that changes the result is often intolerable.
How do we gain the respect of the players and team official?
Personal personality is the first impression and it will give your benefit when they respect your personality. You will never get a second chance to create the first impression. Your performance is the key point of gaining respect. Consistency in implementing the Laws of the Game, penalizing fairly and correctly, consistent in giving further sanction to fouls committed (yellow or red card), pleasant, calm and respectful in your approach to players, coach or team officials, be calm, courageous, strong and assertive in handling difficult situation or confrontation and giving the correct action or decision respected and accepted by all. The players body language or gesture when shown the card will indicate whether he accepts your card or not. The players and team officials should be given the picture that you just doing your job and you trying your very best to do a good job. Handling injury, time-wasting or even managing the defensive wall gives a picture of your capability and your refereeing caliber. Positive action and message viewed will gain your the respect from the players, coaches or team officials and even your fellow referees. Give respect to gain respect.
I dream to have a team of excellent referees who can understand the feelings, role and responsibilities of the players and team official thus, giving them the opportunity to understand you better. With that, we can work together towards the development of Dhivehi football to the highest respectable level.

Sunday, May 1, 2011

Coaches & Referees Mutual Understanding

Mutual understanding among the referees and coaches and officials in the Dhiraagu Dhivehi League is a vital scenario to create and make its existence stays. The patience and understanding of each others' role and state anxiety condition will give a better professional action to each others' reactions.
Development of referees is a long gradual process and varies from individuals with regards to talent and the commitment of the referees. This is similar with the development of players from normal potential talented players to excellent ones. More often it takes years to develop a referee into an excellent one with the ability to sprint and move gracefully with the flow of fast attacking football, understanding football strategies and the emotional aspect of players, coaches and also officials, take instant action on fouls and misconduct and gives appropriate sanction accordingly and overcoming difficult situation or confrontation with assertiveness, calmness and consistency. In the process of becoming in to their best performance, mistakes do occur and this needs the cooperation and patience of the team officials as much as the coaches are patience with the mistakes made by their up and coming players.
Grooming young talented or potential referees into excellent strong referees needs great patience, perseverance and commitment of the trainer and also the individual referee himself. Grooming includes exposing them to matches at different level, critical observation, proper guidance, appropriate sanctions, motivation, training, debriefing, video observation and many other relevant techniques in molding them into better ones. Even the more experienced ones do make mistakes but absorbing the mistakes made by the younger ones can be painful and breathtaking by the instructors, assessors, administrator and even the team officials. But with the main aim of producing the good ones from the small pool of referees available some sacrifice of tolerable nature needs to be given.
The end products, we hope to see are talented potential referees developing into strong, intelligent and excellent referees of high caliber. With excellent referees the level of DHIVEHI Football will also rise to a respectable level in the region or Asia.

Read this:

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

FIFA Beach Soccer Refereeing Course

BEACH SOCCER - Ready to roll?
Football Association has just concluded the first FIFA Beach Soccer introductory course for 25 referees in Male from the 18 - 22 April 2011. FIFA Instructor Stephan Fassler from Switzerland conducted the course.
The participants were given workshop, group discussion and practical training pertaining to the identify the difference in the understanding and interpretation of the Laws of the Game and its implementation from the normal football and FUTSAL game. A Beach Soccer Festival was also held to gauge the understanding of the referees in the interpretation and implementation of the laws. This was a good experience for all the participants including the local FUTURO III Instructors, Ahmed Abeer Ismail and Mohamed Saeed.
All the participants realized and understood that from this short course, it is very difficult to grasp all that is needed to know of the game. More intensive theory sessions and quizzes including practical experiences in training and the match practices is needed. The knowledge achieved in this course is just "the tip of an iceberg". Much is needed to be done by the FA and also the participants themselves.
Where do we go from here? Referees Department of FA Maldives hope that the Beach Games Committee in the Ministry of Youth and Sports will hold a local competition prior to the International Invitation Beach Soccer Competition to held here in the Maldives in September. We can all dream that one day our Dhivehi football will soars to greater height and perhaps be a small giant from a tiny country respected in the Beach Soccer World Cup.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Psychological Effects in the Game

"Butterfly in the stomach" or nervous is a normal effect manifested by the anxiety level in a referee prior to a match. Having a manageable anxiety level will instill in the mind of the referee to be prepared mentally and physically for the match. High anxiety level may be detrimental to the performance resulting in wrong decision, unable to give full concentration to have the game or difficult situations under his control. Low anxiety level leads to complacency and thus will be reflected in a uncommitted, careless, lethargic or incompetent performance.
High level match (top of the table derby or knock-out stage) will affect the referee in his preparedness for the game. Experience will differ a referee from from another. Having the ability to absorb the high pressure will be an advantage to the referee. Ability to psyche-up or motivate oneself to perform at his best is also a characteristic that an excellent referee possessed.
Knowing your strength and weakness and understanding unwanted thoughts (pondering over mistakes or thinking of protest from players) that affect your feeling will be helpful. Get rid of or control unwanted thoughts. If you realized that you made a mistake, admit and forget about it for the moment by giving your best attention in the rest of the duration. Manage your emotion. You do not need to be angry or scared of situation. Maintain your composure by staying calm (take a deep breath). Refocus or stay focus to your task (move your position if you need to do so).
When your decisions are always being contested, use your card to stamp your authority or be more assertive on situations (time-wasting, moving the wall, dissent). Maintain a positive attitude towards the game. Do not be prejudice to situations (simulation or time-wasting) or players (arguing, questioning or protesting) by not assuming situations or the behavior of the players. The moment you make a decision, run straight to your commanding position and not to the incident. This will avoid the players to gather and crowd round or confront you. Try to improve your consistency in your decision by moving nearer to see clearer (wider angle of vision) and decide better.
A thorough self evaluation after the match will not hurt anybody. Be sincere to yourself for the sake of your improvement and development. Elite referees who improve themselves match after match will instill on the peers to follow and to adapt incremental improvement.
Self-talking or self-analysis even during the game may be useful as there is no way others can communicate with you if you are not equip with the communication system.
Good luck.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

Mental Preparation for a Game

Excellent referees makes the difference from other peer by doing mental preparation besides the normal preparation of physical fitness, sound interpretation of the Laws of the Game, good man management, good management of critical situations or reading of the game.
How do we prepare for a game? There should not be any change in the physical preparation in training at your usual or normal level. No need to change your pattern of relaxation and training as both are equally important. Prepare yourself mentally for anything that might happen by doing visualization training. Do not try to change your refereeing technique. Be yourself. Perhaps you can look into the aspects highlighted by your peers or referee assessor for improvement. Work on the areas of development will make the difference.
Mental rehearsal (visualization) everyday by seeing yourself refereeing in an ideal stat without the 'pressure of the game'.
When you are feeling anxious or nervous, it is alright as you will need an adrenaline flow for the game to put yourself to state of alertness. A complacent state of mind may lead to careless mistakes.
You should have confident and anticipate a good game by enjoying the game, you will be performing well, be in control of situations and ever ready to handle any situations that may arises. Go into to the game with an opened mind, no prejudice, relaxed and tell yourself that you will do your your best to have a good game.

Adapted from:

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Injuries in Refereeing

Basically, there are two types of injuries: acute injuries and overuse injuries. acute injuries often occur as a result of an accident, a hard knock, a bad tackle, fractures, sprains, dislocations or muscle strain. Overuse injuries are more common among referees and are more subtle and usually occur over time. They are the result of micro trauma (small injuries)to the tendons, bones and joints. Common overuse injuries among referees are Achilles tendinitis, shin splints, plantar faciitis, tennis elbow, runner knee or jumper's knee.
How does overuse injuries occur?
Too much work in a short period will leads to tension. If you are trying to improve your fitness in a short time, it will result in overuse injuries. The human body normally will be able to adapt to most of the physical stresses. In fact, improvement in performance is due to this phenomenon where the bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments become stronger through exercises and activity. This is termed as the remodeling process of the body where there is the breakdown and the build up of tissues. If the the build up occurs efficiently than the breakdown then the enhancement of physical level occurs but if the break down occurs more rapidly than the build up, injury occurs.
What causes overuse injuries?
Methods of training is important and training errors are the most common cause of overuse injuries. In training, sudden increase or rapid increase in workload or intensity (speed, distance, repetition) of the activity will result in injury. Over-training or over-loading without proper rest. Too many matches in a day or a week will create fatigue in the muscles and thus result in the micro trauma of the tissues. Overuse injury also happen in people who return after injury and try to do to much in a short span of time. Other factors resulting in overuse injuries may be training surface, shoes, equipments or individual biological factors.
Ways to avoid overuse injuries.
Gradual running in or build up into physical activities is very important. Have consistent training schedule, gradual acceleration in intensity or work outs, wear proper shoes for suitable surface or activities and "listen to your body" do not over-work your body.
Treatment depends on individual and also the injury. Reducing the intensity (work load), duration or frequency of the activities may reduce the pressure or brings relief to the affected part. Adopt a hard/easy schedule (alternating hard workout with easier ones) to maintain overall fitness while the injured part recovering. Work with a trainer. Special attention to proper warm up before the activity and using ice after activity may relief the affected part. Aspirin to be taken only on doctor's advice.
You can prevent overuse injuries with proper training method and schedule. Use your common sense too. Listen to your body. "No pain, no gain" does not apply here. Gradual increase in intensity. Have enough time for your training schedule (do not do too much in too little a time). Take a break when you body gives you message that you need a rest.

Adopted from "Get back in the Game"

Friday, January 21, 2011

Registration of Referee 2011

FAM has open its registration for football and FUTSAL referees for the year 2011.
The forms can taken from the Referees Department and return on or before 10 February 2011.

Regulation need to be followed:
1. Referees will only be registered after they had fulfilled the requirement:
- passed medical test, FIFA physical test, theory est and attend Seminar.

2. Only registered referees will be given equipments as approved by the Referees Committee for the year.

3. All FIFA Referees and Assistant Referees may not be registered as FUTSAL Referees and shall not referee any FUTSAL matches.

4. Island referees can request for registration via e-mail ( or download the forms from

5. Testing in islands will be carried after April and the island concern will be informed.

6. Course for Football and FUTSAL referees will held in Male every year to increase the number of referees. Islands who are interested to have course can apply to the Football Association of Maldives.

7. No other association or individual body has the authority to run any course or certified the course other than FAM.

8. FAM as the sole controlling body for football and FUTSAL activities has the sole authority to sanction any competitions or appoint the referees. No other association or body has the right to do so.

9. Island who uses referees that are not appointed by FAM will not be given any attention or assistance.

10. All matters concerning refereeing, courses, competitions or related matted on football should be referred to the Football Association of Maldives.

11. Seminar for FUTSAL Referees - 27 February - 4 March 2011

12. Seminar for Football Referees - 20 - 25 March 2011.-

Monday, January 17, 2011

FAM Football Seminar

January 17, 2011 - Football Association of Maldives had its Seminar on Football at the Youth Centre in Male'. Members from clubs, media, referees, coaches and sports personnel were invited to give their their view towards enhancing the Dhiraagu Dhivehi League 2011.
In the development of football in Maldives, there are the basic elements that influence its performance, the players, match officials, team officials, Club's owners, organizers (FAM), supporters, sponsors, media and Ministry of Youth and Sports.

All these elements have their own strengths and weaknesses, which will affect or have effects on the other elements. Performance of the players and their professional attitude towards each match is their responsibility to ensure that their fans or supporters are always being entertained and contented. This will then enhance the gate collection which is the additional financial source. Professional approach in handling the team by team officials ensure team work and joint performance and results. Reaction of team officials to decisions of match officials may calm or incite the players and also the supporters. When players lose their concentration, it will result in mistake, aggression, injury, card or sent off and receiving goal. Excellent strategy and flow of the attack and defense by players will enhance the movement of the referees and thus improve his refereeing standards. High quality play with full commitment to produce good entertainment will bring the crowd to the stadium. Incited supporters will bring about aggression and unruly reactions. Sponsors will get their extra mileage through crowd and also good media coverage. Good quality media coverage will also raise the standards of the matches to receive AFC of FIFA recognition to put the video clips into their weekly show (e.g. Football Asia).
More often, we tend to see negative reaction from the elements. If every elements involved keep finding the fault and error the others or trying to shift their own weaknesses to others, there will not be a solution to improve the quality of football in the playing, organizing, selling, sponsoring and producing quality players for the country. All these elements should compliment or supplement each other in order to create a bonding towards bringing Dhivehi football to the eyes of the world. The organizer (FAM) with the assistance and support of the Ministry of Youth and Sports can make wonders in Maldives if they work closely, with each enhancing each other. There may be differences in the color of the flag but there are a lot of similarities. We pray to the same God (Allah), the same direction (Kiblat), speak the same language (Dhivehi) and eat the same food (roshi, garudhia). Football is a public entity and thus needs to be given a special attention and support. This will definitely bring the level of Dhivehi football to the highest standard so that one day, Maldives will stand the same height as other football giant in the world.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

Ali Azim - AFC Executive Committee Member

Ali Azim, President of Football Association of Maldives has been elected as one of the Executive Committee Member (2011 -2015) in the 24th AFC Congress held in Doha, Qatar on the 6th of January 2011.
Commenting to reporters, Ali Azim admitted that the post is not a privilege but a huge responsibility.

More details